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TODDLER (Part II)

Cherryl Velasco Francia, M.D., D.P.B.P.

Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine

 

 

OBJECTIVES:

•         To describe the motor and sensory behavior of a toddler

•         To describe the adaptive behavior of the toddler

•         To describe the personal and social behavior of a toddler

•         To describe the emotional development of the toddler

 

TODDLER PERIOD

 

•         2nd year of life

•         acceleration of motor and intellectual development

•         walk, speech, emotions

 

LANGUAGE AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

 

•         learning language is concise

•         distinct vocalizations

•         names few objects

•         expresses needs in 1-2 words

•         short sentences at 3 y.o.

•         reasons and listens to explanations ==> tolerates delay

•         creates new behavior from old ones

•         symbolic activity

•         variable capacities for concentration and regulation

 

EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

 

•         pleasure vs. displeasure

•         exploratory excitement, assertive pleasure

•         pleasure  in discovery and new behavior

•         organized demonstration of love and protest

•         comfort : family & apprehension : strangers

•         anxiety with disapproval & loss of loved caretaker

 

PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF THE TODDLER PERIOD

 

OBJECTIVES

•         To define and describe Sigmund Freud’s anal phase of psychosexual development.

•         To discuss Erik Erikson’s proposed stage (2) of the life cycle.

•         To describe Jean Piaget’s preoperational stage of cognitive development.

•         To discuss the psychopathology that results in fixation at the toddler stage

 

FREUD’S ANAL STAGE

 

•         1-3 years old

•         maturation of neuromuscular sphincters (anal)

•         intensified aggressive and libidinal drives

•         sphincter control = passivity to activity

•         anal eroticism

•         anal sadism

•         bombings and explosions

•         anal erotism  - sexual pleasure in anal functioning (retaining /presenting feces)

•         anal sadism - expression of aggressive wishes associated with discharging feces as powerful and destructive

•         Objective :  independence and separation

•         autonomy and independence without excessive shame or self-doubt

•         Resolution: personal autonomy

•         independence without guilt

•         self-determining behavior without shame/doubt

•         willing cooperation without excessive willfulness

•         Maladaptive Character Traits :

•         orderliness  

•         obstinacy, stubbornness, willfulness

•         frugality, parsimony

•         heightened ambivalence

•         messiness, rage, defiance,

•         sadomasochistic tendencies,  

•         obsessive compulsive disorder

 

ERIKSON’S STAGE 2 OF EPIGENETIC PRINCIPLE

 

•         Autonomy versus Shame

•         mastery over themselves and over drives and impulses

•         sense of separateness from others

•         choice of letting go (eliminating feces), being cooperative or stubborn (holding in of feces)

•         walk alone, feed themselves, control sphincter == muscular maturation

•         supportive parents==>self confidence, self esteem, sense of pride

•         overprotection and control ==> shame, self doubt

 

PIAGET’S PREOPRATIONAL STAGE OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

 

•         2-7 years of age

•         more extensive use of symbols and language

•         thinking and reasoning are intuitive

•         unable to think logically or deductively

•         concepts are primitive

•         no sense of cause and effect

•         unable to grasp sameness of objects in different circumstance

•         unable to deal with moral dilemma

•         sense of  good and bad

•         sense of immanent justice - belief that punishment for bad deeds is inevitable

•         Egocentric, very limited pointy of view

•         unable to take the role of another person

•         unable to modify their behavior for someone else

•         phenomenalistic causality

•         animistic thinking

•         semiotic function

•         Phenomenalistic causality - events that occur together are thought to cause one another

•         Animistic thinking - endow physical events with lifelike psychological attributes

•         Semiotic Function - represent something with a signifier which serves a representative function; symbol or sign for something; drawings