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TODDLER (Part I)

Ma. Jocelyn G. Gayares, M.D., D.P.B.P., F.P.P.A.

Child, Adolescent and Adult Psychiatrist

 

 


Toddler

 

          2-4 years old

          Discuss 1-3 years old = “toddler” for today

          “Preschool” – 3-5 years old

 

References

 

          Psychiatry – Tasman, Kay, Lieberman

          Developmental Pediatrics – Denver

          Pediatrics – Del Mundo

 

General Objectives

 

          To integrate the various aspects of growth and development of a toddler

 

Specific Objectives

 

1.       To describe the motor and sensory behavior of a toddler

2.       To describe the adaptive behavior of the toddler

3.       To describe the personal and social behavior of a toddler

4.       To describe the emotional development of the toddler


 

Age

Gross Motor

Fine Motor

Language

Personal/social

1 mos

 

Hands partially open or fisted

Throaty noises

Regard

2

Holds head

Grasp toy when placed in hand; Hands no longer fisted

 

Social smile

Responds to mother more

3

Turns head

Clasps hands together

Musical cooing

 

4

Holds head

 

squeals

Actively smiles

5

Roll over

Reaches out for toys

 

laughs

6

Sit with support

Transfer toy from one hand to another

 

Feed self (biscuit)

7

Holds 2 toys at once

Sit alone

Bounces

 

Vocalizes da, ma, ba

Stranger anxiety

Discovers genitals

Uncovers toy hidden by cloth

8

Creeps

 

Understands “no”

Feeds self (bottle)

9

Pulls self to standing

Bangs toys together

Says “mama”, “dada”, as names

Separation anxiety

Plays social games (peek-a-boo, bye-bye)

10

Cruise

Pincer grasp

1 other word

Examines and pokes toys

11

Walks with help

Takes cover from boxes

 

Plays simple ball games (roll)

12

Walks alone

 

2-3 other words

 

 

Toddler Period

 


          Localization of “language cells” to L temporal and parietal regions – 20 months

 

          Myelination of brain cells for language – 21 months (adult level)

          comprehension

          self representation

          mirror, pictures, video

          Pronouns – I, you, mine

          concept of others although ego-centric

          Gender concept starts --- full by 5 years old

          Pretend play

 

          Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose – 2 years old (adult level)

          “Who, Why, What”

 

          Full lumbar and sacral nerve development – 3 years old

          Bladder control


 

Age

Gross Motor

Fine Motor

Language

Personal/social

15 mos

Creeps up stairs

Tower of 2

Several words

Drinks from cup

Kiss on request

Indicate wet pants

Takes off shoes

18 mos

(1 ½ y/o)

Walk up stairs with help

Sit self on chair

Tower of 3-4 cubes

Many words

Points to 2-3 body parts

 

21 mos

 

 

I, me, you, mine

Pretend play

Recognize self in mirror, pictures, video

24 mos

(2 y/o)

Walk up and down stairs alone

Throw ball overhead

Tower of 6-7 cubes

Primitive tripod grasp

50 word vocabulary

Joins nursery rhymes and songs

Refers to self by name

Spoon feeds self with spills

Concept of shame, guilt, pride, envy, pride

Concept of immanent justice

3 y/o

Ride tricycle

1 foot per step up stairs

Jumps off bottom steps

Tripod grip

Draw circle

Draw a person with head and 1-2 other body parts

Thumb wiggle

Knows name and sex

Names 1-2 colors

250 word vocabulary

Count 1-10

Eats skillfully with spoon

Dry by day

Brush teeth with help

Helps in mother’s chores

Internalization of parental standards (even if parent not around)

Concept of adults and children – use simple words with peers and whine only to adults