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BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTIONS II

 

ENZYMES AS MARKERS OF DISEASES

 

 

Enzymes:

Hepatic Enzymes:

Normal Adult Range: 0 - 42 U/L

Normal Adult Range: 0 - 250 U/L

Normal Adult Range: 0 - 48 U/L

Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)

»Normal Adult Range: 20 - 125 U/L
»Normal Childrens Range: 40 - 400 U/L
Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT)
» Normal Adult Female Range: 0 - 45 U/L
»Normal Adult Male Range: 0 - 65 U/L

Cardiac Enzymes:

5 types of LDH and their Normal Distribution & Levels in Nondisease/injury:

Following a myocardial infarct the serum levels of LDH rise within 24-48 hours reaching a peak by 2-3 days and return to normal in 5-10 days.

Especially diagnostic is a comparison of the LDH-1/LDH-2 ratio. Normally, this ratio is less than 1.

A reversal of this ration is referred to as a "flipped LDH." Following an acute myocardial infarc the flipped LDH ratio will appear in 12-24 hours and is definitely present by 48 hours in over 80% of patients.

Also important is the fact that persons suffering chest pain due to angina only will not likely have altered LDH levels.

Markers of Cholestasis:

(Normal values 85-240 U/L)

(Normal values 5-40 U/L)

GGT can be induced by alcohol intake (particularly sensitive) and some drugs (phenytoin, barbiturates).

 

 

ARTERIOSCLEROSIS & CORONARY HEART DISEASE

 

 

Arteriosclerosis

Known causes:

Treatment & Drug Therapy:

Risk factors:

Symptoms:

Tests:

Treatment:

 

MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

 

 

Multiple Sclerosis

Symptoms:

Clinical Features:

Tests:

Prognosis:

Treatment:

Patients experience alterations in all functions- vision, mobility and coordination, nutrition, elimination and communication.

Care of the patient with MS requires a total health care team approach.

 


ROLE OF OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS IN HUMAN DIET

 

 

OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID

MAJOR OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS

MAJOR OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS

Sources:

Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids:

OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID

(US NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH RECOMMENDS)

RISKS OF OMEGA-3 FATTY:

Because of the potential for side effects and interactions with medications, dietary supplements should be taken only under supervision of a healthcare provider

INTERACTIONS:

 

 

HOW DIET AND LIFESTYLE AFFECT SERUM CHOLESTEROL

 

 

What affects cholesterol level?

Types of cholesterol:

Cholesterol is transported around the body in the blood attached to a protein. This fat-protein combination is called a lipoprotein. Lipoproteins can be high density (HDL), low density (LDL) or very low density (VLDL), depending on how much protein there is in relation to fat.

LDL (bad cholesterol)

HDL (good cholesterol)

Triglycerides

A different type of fat, which mostly come from fats in food

Calories that are eaten and not used immediately are converted into triglycerides and transported to fat cells for storage.

They are carried in the blood as very low density lipoproteins (VLDL).

Only about 20% of cholesterol comes directly from the diet - the other 80% is produced by the liver. However, a diet high in saturated fats and cholesterol can cause the liver to produce more LDL ("bad") cholesterol. The amount that diet influences cholesterol levels varies from person to person and is probably an inherited characteristic. Some people who eat high-fat diets have high cholesterol levels; others may have normal or low cholesterol levels.

How Lifestyle affects blood cholesterol

 

Treatment:

 

 

MYELIN AND MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

 

 

Nerve Fibers

Two types of nerve fibers are present in the Central and Peripheral Nervous system:

Myelinated Nerve fibers

Myelin Sheath

Myelin

Major Protein in the Myelin CNS are:

Functions of Myelin:

 

 

Demyelinating diseases

Multiple Sclerosis

What causes MS?

Type of symptoms produced depends on:

Symptoms:

Is MS inherited?

These statistics suggest that genetics may play a role but other data suggest that environmental factors also have as important role.

The disease is more common in temperate climates (1:2,000) than in tropics (1:10,000)

The onset Of MS is usually at age 20 to 40 years.

 

 

ROLE OF OMEGA-6 FATTY ACIDS IN THE HUMAN DIET

 

 

Omega-6 Fatty Acids

Dietary sources include:

Types of Omega-6 Fatty Acids:

1. Linoleic Acids

Gamma Linoleic acid

2. Arachidonic acid

Health benefits of Omega-6:

Omega-6 Fatty Acids may be useful for the following purpose:

If currently treated with any of the following medications, Omega-6 supplements should be avoided:

Available Forms:

Imbalance contributes to long term disease such as:

For nursing infants, adequate amounts of essential fatty acids are generally supplied in breast milk if the mother is adequately nourished.

For essential fatty acids should be obtained through the diet.

Precautions: